Palm Kernel Shell Process Flow

Palm Kernel Shells, & their Processing Flow

Biomass residue from palm oil industries are attractive renewable energy fuel in Southeast Asia. The abundance of these biomass resources is increasing with the fast development of palm oil industries in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. In the Palm Oil value chain there is an overall surplus of by-products and the utilisation rate of these by-products is low.


Palm kernel shells (or PKS) are the shell fractions left after the nut has been removed after crushing in the Palm Oil mill. Kernel shells are a fibrous material and can be easily handled in bulk directly from the product line to the end use. Large and small shell fractions are mixed with dust-like fractions and small fibres.


Moisture content in kernel shells is low compared to other biomass residues with different sources suggesting values between 11% and 13%. Palm kernel shells contain residues of Palm Oil, which accounts for its slightly higher heating value than average lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to other residues from the industry, it is a good quality biomass fuel with uniform size distribution, easy handling, easy crushing, and limited biological activity due to low moisture content.



Plantations supply Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) to Palm Oil Mills for further processing to get CPO and the by-product will be PKS (biomass)


KOG established direct long-term PKS collection agreement with palm oil mills. KOG trained in-house quality inspector to grade the PKS quality at mills. Our truck drivers are well-trained to identify quality PKS and re-check the quality prior loading on trucks at source mills.

Stockyard, Kuantan

Stockyard Manager – acts as quality gatekeeper; re-inspect the PKS during arrival, segregate and stockpile based on FIFO method.  Sieving Machine – Specially designed 50mts/hour dual layer electromagnetic sieving machine based on our experienced in handling feed materials. HACCP Team – Assigned to continuously monitor the sieved PKS.

Loading Port/Shipment

Dual – Weighing : KOG installed a state-of-art 120mts AVERY weighbridge in our stockyard + utilizing the port weighbridge to ensure accurate weighing quantity. Fumigation : KOG appoints professional licensed fumigator to fumigate every shipment of PKS to ensure excellent cargo condition and only utilized approved fumigants in

Destination Port, Japan

PKS arrived in Japan port in excellent conditions, all customs clearance and necessary paperwork are in good order.